Australian Herbicide Resistance Initiative (AHRI)

About RIM

About RIM

RIM integrated managment

RIM, a decision support software

RIM is a computer-based decision support tool designed specifically for evaluating the profitability of strategic and tactical ryegrass management methods in dryland broadacre cropping dominated by winter cereals. The model integrates biological, agronomic and economic considerations in a dynamic and user-friendly framework, at paddock scale and on the long-term.

The user first customises a paddock profile, then builds a rotation and defines a management strategy. Rotation enterprises include wheat, barley, legumes and pastures, with over 40 field operations to choose from. Ryegrass control methods include chemical, mechanical and cultural options, as well as combinations. The software tracks the changes through time with regards to the ryegrass seed germination, seed production and competition with the crop. Long-term effects over several seasons are accounted for through the carryover of ryegrass seeds into the next step of the rotation.

Additional features include flexible settings for an easy customisation as well as the possibility to visually compare two different strategies or paddock profiles in terms of seed bank dynamics, ryegrass burden on yields, budget allocation for various weed control techniques, and overall profitability.

Key features of RIM

  • A tool to evaluate the profitability of ryegrass control methods in broadacre cropping systems
  • 7 types of enterprises including winter wheat, barley, canola and 3 types of pastures
  • A range of 43 field operations including cultural, chemical and mechanical methods or a combination (timing of seeding, herbicides, high seeding rate and crop competition, grazing, crop sacrifice, topping, harvest weed seed control, user-defined treatments, etc.)
  • Dual focus on the evaluation of both long-term strategies and tactical decisions on a per hectare basis
  • Easy customisation to simulate various cropping environments, with default values for a quick start (set on average values for the Southern Australian grainbelt)
  • Biological outputs include changes in ryegrass plant and seed density over time, as well as competition burden on crops
  • Economic outputs include yearly gross margins, long-term economic return, and weed control budget allocation
  • Numerous agronomic considerations included such as dry seeding, sequential germination of ryegrass, break-crop benefits, cost of residue removal, cost of establishment and of controlling other weeds, etc.
  • Two sets of paddock profiles or 10-year strategies can be visually compared at once
  • Various paddock profiles can simulate herbicide resistance to compare the consequences of the loss of herbicide efficacy
  • Exportable output to PDF and Excel.


For further information contact AHRI at:rim-ahri@uwa.edu.au
RIM 2013

The 2013 version of the RIM model was developed by Myrtille Lacoste under the supervision of Stephen Powles from the Australian Herbicide Resistance Initiative (AHRI) with financial support of GRDC (Grains Research & Development Corporation, Australia).

The upgraded version was released at the Global Resistance Challenge conference in February 2013.

RIM 2013 results from the revision, redesign and restructuring of RIM 2004.

RIM 2004 – Original version

The original RIM was described in: Pannell, D.J., Stewart, V., Monjardino, M., Bennett, A., Schmidt, C., Powles, S.B. (2004) RIM: a bioeconomic model for integrated weed management of Lolium rigidum in Western Australia. Agricultural Systems 79:305-325.

The developers of RIM 2004 include David Pannell, Anne Bennett, Vanessa Stewart, Carmel Schmidt, Marta Monjardino and Stephen Powles. The model was developed with funding from the GRDC. A RIM workshop package was developed by Rick Llewellyn, Alister Draper, and Marc Cartwright of the Australian Herbicide Resistance Initiative (AHRI), and the School of School of Agricultural and Resource Economics
, in conjunction with the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia. A good on-line source of information is David Pannell’s RIM website. The original RIM version and supporting documents are available from AHRI.

Additional versions were developed based on the original RIM for poppies in winter cereals (PIM, contact: Joel Torras) and rice in the Philippines (PhilRIM, contact: Jesusa Beltran). RIM also served as a basis for other models including LUSO, PERTH and the Weed Seed Wizard (contact: Michael Renton).